GPR is a non-intrusive survey technique which can be used in occupied premises with minimal disruption to the occupants. In this case study we were required to locate and mark-up tendons within the floor slab of a working warehouse.
Typically, when we are instructed to undertake an on-site mark-up, the scan areas are small. Usually they are to locate rebar, tendons or obstructions prior to drilling a fixing or cutting a penetration for services. But there are exceptions. Sometimes the survey can cover large areas, such as in this case, where large areas of warehouse floor slab were to be scanned and the results marked-up in-situ.
The purpose of the survey was to establish the location of post tension tendons within areas of the ground floor slab. The position of all tendons was to be marked up in-situ and plotted on CAD drawings.
For this survey a GSSI SIR-4000 was used with a 2.6GHz antenna.
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) scans can be conducted using antennas with different central frequencies. A higher frequency antenna provides better resolution and more detail; however, penetration depth is limited. A lower frequency antenna provides better penetration depth, albeit at a lower resolution. For this survey a 2.6GHz antenna was used, giving a penetration depth of up to 300mm.
The floor slab was scanned with GPR scan lines collected as and where required. The GPR data was analysed in real time using the built-in screen on the control unit. Tendon positions were picked and marked up in situ. No off-site data analysis was necessary.
GPR detected two different forms of post-tensioned slab construction; the joint between them was visible on site. The thickness of the slab construction varied from 170-250mm; the depth of the tendons was variable.
The position of the tendons was also recorded by a topographic survey and plotted in CAD.