Everything you need to know about Ground Penetrating Radar. What is it? How does it work? Its advantages, and how Sandberg use Ground Penetrating Radar as an NDT survey method in the Construction Industry.
Ground Penetrating Radar, commonly abbreviated to GPR (also known as Georadar, Ground Probing Radar and Surface Penetrating Radar), uses high frequency radio waves to detect changes and image the subsurface. It is a geophysical technique originally developed for mapping geological features.
Due to continued development and advances in technology, GPR is being used for an ever-increasing range of applications. It has even been used on missions to the Moon and Mars. During the 1970?s Apollo missions to the Moon, Ground Penetrating Radar was used to explore the near surface geological structure, to locate potential resources for future human outposts on the Moon. More recently, a pulse radar mounted on a Mars orbiter, found evidence of liquid water, or water-rich sediments, under the southern polar ice cap.
Ground Penetrating Radar is now widely recognised as a highly cost effective non-intrusive testing (NDT) technique, offering a rapid means of obtaining subsurface information from a variety of materials including concrete, brick, masonry, wood, asphalt and soil.
Ground Penetrating Radar detects changes in the sub-surface. It is not limited to the detection of metallic objects but will also detect most other materials such as plastic, clay pipes, voids, wood, disturbed ground, layer interfaces, etc, as long as the target material has sufficiently different electrical properties to the surrounding material.
GPR will also provide estimates of depth and layer thickness. It can, therefore, be used to determine the depth of objects, the thickness of walls and slabs, and the thickness of asphalt and screed layers.
Compared to other non-destructive techniques, such as infrared thermography, ultrasonic or microwave, GPR offers more penetrating power and so can detect concrete defects or deteriorations at greater depths (Dong and Ansari, 2011).
Ground Penetrating Radar uses electromagnetic pulses usually in the range 10 MHz to 4 GHz, to detect changes in the sub-surface. The Ground Penetrating Radar equipment comprises a control unit, power supply (often incorporated within the control unit) and an antenna. The antenna (usually a combined transmitter and receiver) is used to transmit the electromagnetic energy into the sub-surface. When this energy encounters changes, particularly different permittivities, some of the energy is reflected back to the antenna. By recording the time taken and variations in the return signal, the information can be interpreted to provide information about the sub-surface.
Several factors affect Ground Penetrating Radar and the quality of the data received:
In GPR surveys, there is always a trade-off between resolution and penetration depth. It is, therefore, desirable to use the highest frequency possible, while still meeting the objectives of the survey.
Find out more about How Ground Penetrating Radar works.
Ground Penetrating Radar can determine sub-surface detail, rebar distribution, voids, etc. non-intrusively without damage to the surrounding structure.
Ground Penetrating Radar scanning is quick and efficient and is suitable for scanning large or small areas. If required, preliminary results are available in real time.
Ground Penetrating Radar can help limit exposure and control risk by locating potential problems and confirming compliance with the specification.
Due to recent progress in the development of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment, particularly at the high-frequency end of the spectrum, the use of GPR is increasingly common within the Civil Engineering and Construction industries.
Sandberg were amongst the first to recognise the potential of GPR as an investigative survey technique in these industries. It was the perfect fit for the testing and inspection services of construction materials in which Sandberg specialise.
Over the years Sandberg have developed techniques and considerable expertise in the application and interpretation of Ground Penetrating Radar.
Sandberg have developed expertise in the use of Ground Penetrating Radar for many different applications including:
The application of GPR is limited only by the imagination and skill of the GPR operative conducting the survey and interpreting the data. Availability and use of the most suitable Ground Penetrating Radar equipment is key to overcoming many of the problems and challenges we encounter on site.
Ground Penetrating Radar is a flexible NDT survey technique suitable for many different applications.
The following three applications are the most common:
In addition to Ground Penetrating Radar, Sandberg provide a one stop shop for construction industry material services throughout the world, including:
Our clients include consulting engineers, architects, surveyors, government and public authorities, civil engineering and building contractors, property developers and managers, lawyers and manufacturers and suppliers of building materials. We don’t just aim to meet our client’s expectations, we endeavour to exceed them!
Ground Penetrating Radar investigations are carried out by our team of specialised and experienced GPR surveyors, whose professional ability and integrity is evident in every aspect of their work.